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B AND D

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

a commonly used abbreviation for bondage and discipline.

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B FIBER

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

refers to a myelinated nerve fiber of the autonomic nervous system that transmits nerve impulses to a sympathetic chain. B fibers are approximately 2mm or less in diameter and carry impulses at speeds of 3-15 m/s. Compare with A fiber- C fiber.

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B WAVE OF ELECTRORETINOGRAM

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

refers to a large, positive electrical wave pattern that is recorded by the eye when the retina is stimulated by light. The electrical response is then detected by an electrode placed on the anesthetized surface of the eye. See also electroretinogram.

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BABBLING

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

refers to pre-speech sounds, such as mamama, made by infants from around 6 months of age. Babbling is usually regarded as practice in vocalization, which facilitates speech development. Also known as babble. See baby talk.

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BABINSKI REFLEX

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

the innate reflex occurring in a healthy infant whereby the toes extend upward when the sole of the foot is gently stimulated. This response generally disappears by the time the baby walks, but it may reappear in adults if there is a loss in the function of the upper motor neurons. Also known as Babinski's sign. [Joseph F. Babinski (1857- 19321, French neurologist]

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BABKIN REFLEX

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

refers to an innate neonatal reflex whereby infants open their mouths and twist their heads in response to pressure placed on their palms. [Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877

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BABY BLUES

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

refers to a colloquial name for the transient depressive symptoms that affect 70% of women until 10 days after giving birth. It should be distinguished from postpartum depression in that it is not as severe or long-lasting. Also known as maternity blues- postpartum blues.

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BABY TALK

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

1. refers to any sounds used by a child in the early stages of speech development. See also babbling- prespeech development. 2. also refers to the type of speech used by adults and older children when talking to infants or very young children. See also infant-directed speech.

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BACK-FORMATION

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

refers to the creation of a new word on the mistaken assumption that an existing word derives from it. Commonly, this involves the elimination of an affix or inflection, as in the creation of the verb enthuse from enthusiasm. The term is also applied to a word formed in this way. Also known as inverse derivation- retrogressive formation. See also clipping.

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BACK-TRANSLATION

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

n. refers to the process of translating a statement or paragraph back to its original language.

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