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ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN (A-FETOPROTEIN AFP)

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

a protein seen in the blood plasma of developing children while inutero and cultivated by a few growths in mature people. Concerning mice, rats, and the like, alpha- fetoprotein adheres estrogens and blocks them from penetrating the human brain, thereby commanding sexual distinction. With respect to mature human beings, gauging of alpha-fetoprotein is recommended to establish liver cancer.

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AMPUTATION

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

with regard to the medical or trauma-related separation of an appendage from the core body or from another limb on the body. A medical operation typically employed in order to save lives in the aftermath of a trauma or damaging event. It also deters the expansion of a cancerous growth or gangrene, or to separate the body from one of it's parts which doesn't have a sufficient blood supply anymore.

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AMSTERDAM CRITERIA

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

the traditional requirements for recognizing a family with genetic nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. The requirements are marked by a three-two-one prototype: three people who have colon cancer, one of which is a family member of the other in the first degree, in two or more generations, with the onslaught being prior to fifty years of age in any number of people, even as small are one.

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ANTIANDROGEN THERAPY

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

a type of medical treatment using anitandrogens to mitigate an excessive level of male hormones. Specifically, it may correct hair loss, prostrate cancer, and masculine traits (e.g. facial hair) in women. More recently, it has been used in the treatment of sex offenders.

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ANTIESTROGEN

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

a substance (e.g., tamoxifen) that lessens the physiological effects of estrogenic hormones on the tissues that are normally responsive to them. May function by exerting a primarily antagonistic effect on estrogen receptors, lessening the effectiveness, or by blocking estrogen receptor sites. Substances (e.g., raloxifene) that exhibit both agonist and antagonist effect at estrogen receptor sites are called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). These agents are primarily used in the treatment or prevention of breast cancer, as well as to combat female infertility. Also known as estrogen antagonist.

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ATTRIBUTABLE RISK

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

in epidemiology, the incidence rate of a disease or disorder that can be considered to have been caused by exposure to a specific risk factor. A large portion of lung cancers, for example, can be attributed to tobacco use.

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BCL-2

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

n. a family of regulator proteins, first of which is the B-Cell Lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) gene. These are genes whose proteins and protein products help regulate the balance between cell growth and death. Often implicated in programmed cell death, it is suspected to be involved in cancers of the breast, lung, prostate, and other lymphoma.

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BRCA1 AND BRCA2

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

n. the first-two major cancer genes associated with a person's susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. In women with mutations in one of these two genes, the risk of breast cancer is at 56-85%. A mutation in the second gene also increases the rate of male breast cancer, although the figure runs low at 5%.

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BRCA1 AND BRCA2

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

The 2 major genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer.

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CANCER

Written by Pam MS, NCSP | Fact checked by Psychology Dictionary staff 

n. a group of pathological conditions characterized by the abnormal growth of cells. Locally, this abnormal mass may develop into a malignant tumor known as a neoplasm. It invades neighboring tissues and spreads to other organs via the bloodstream in a process called metastasis.

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