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DREAM INTERPRETATION (Historical)

The belief that dreams have a special significance is practically universal. They have been an object of curiosity in all

DREAM INTERPRETATION (Modern)

As the preceding topic indicates, many provocative ideas on dreams were “in the air” at the turn of the twentieth

DREAM-STATE (D-STATE, REM- STATE)

A state of the organism that occurs during dreaming, recently found to be physiologically distinct from both the ordinary sleep

DRUG ADDICTION

Compulsive dependence on the use of narcotic drugs.Drug addiction is characterized not merely by persistent use of a drug, but

DRUG INTOXICATION

A number of medical drugs have been found to produce mental symptoms when taken in excessive doses over long periods.

DYNAMIC APPROACH

Dynamic psychology and psychiatry approach the study of human behavior by examining underlying forces of motivation. This approach contrasts with

DYNAMICS (PSYCHODYNAMICS)

The force or pattern of forces which gives rise to a particular psychological event or condition, such as an act,

DYNAMISM (Mental Dynamism)

A psychological device used to protect the ego; a defense mechanism, such as compensation or rationalization.Defense mechanism is the more

DYSAUTONOMIA (Familial Dysauto- nomia)

Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, believed to result from an obscure brain defect. The condition tends to run in

DYSSOCIAL REACTION

A “socio- pathic” personality disorder in which the individual adopts a delinquent or criminal way of life as a result

DEMYELINATING DISORDERS

These diseases, which include multiple sclerosis and diffuse sclerosis, are due to the degeneration of the insulating (myelin) sheath around

DISSOCIATIVE REACTION

A psychoneurotic reaction in which a portion of experience is split off, or isolated, from conscious awareness.As a neurotic reaction,

DENIAL OF REALITY (DENIAL)

The unconscious defense mechanism of denying the existence of painful facts.This technique enables an individual to escape from intolerable thoughts,

DIX, DOROTHEA LYNDE (1802-87)

Dorothea Dix was the most effective advocate of humanitarian reform in American mental institutions during the nineteenth century. Born in

DEREISTIC THINKING

Mental activity which is not in accord with reality, experience and logic.Daydreams frequently fall into this category, but the most

DOMINANCE RELATIONSHIP

A pattern of social organization in which some individuals assert a higher rank than others.Dominance relationships are frequently observed in

DESCARTES, RENE (1596-1650)

Though primarily a philosopher and mathematician, Descartes nevertheless had a profound influence on the development of psychology. Bom in La

DESCRIPTIVE PSYCHIATRY

A systematic approach to psychiatry based upon the observation, study, and classification of directly observable symptoms and clinical patterns. It

DETECTION THEORY

An explanation of the way signals are perceived against a background of noise.The psychological study of signal detection is an

DETERIORATION (Mental Deterioration)

In psychiatry, deterioration denotes a progressive impairment or decline of intellectual and personality functions such as memory, reasoning, concentration, communication,