PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

Professional ethics are rules of conduct for a specific profession and are generally drawn up by members of the professional board. They enumerates standards...

SECONDARY GAINS

In psychoanalysis, social, occupational, or interpersonal advantages that a patient derives from symptoms. Indirect benefit, usually obtained through an illness or debility. Such gains...

INTERVENTION RESEARCH

Activities designed to measure how much better a situation is after modification that is systematic and to measure or has been imposed and the...

COTHERAPY

therapy performed by two professionals treating one or two patients, or sometimes a group of people of family unit, in order to elevate comprehension...

FRUSTRATIVE NONREWARD HYPOTHESIS

a proposition that consistently withholding reinforcement of responses during operant or instrumental conditioning leads to an internal state of frustration manifested in a variety...

MEDITATION

is considered an exercise during which the individual enters an extended state of contemplation and reflection over a specific subject or their general existence,...

SUBNORMAL

to refer to something which is below the expected or normal level. The term is no longer used to refer to the intelligence since...

ITEM VALIDITY

In a test or experiment the extent to which an individual item measures what it purports to measure.

COUNSELING RELATIONSHIP

the interplay between therapist and patient wherein the union is of a professional nature, but also marked by sympathy, understanding, and validity, with the...

SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL

Null hypothesis significance testing. the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. The probability of a type 1 error. also called...

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