APPETITIVE CONDITIONING

a type of Pavlovian or classical conditioning in which the unconditioned stimulus is a positive reinforcer that plays to the appetite, for example, food.

ARBITRARY SYMBOL

a linguistic sign, for example, a verbally spoken word, that bears no obvious resemblance to the thing or concept signified. Because the vast majority...

AUDITORY MASKING

a reduction in the ability to detect, discriminate, or recognize a specific sound (the signal or target) due to interferences caused by another sound...

ATTENTION LEVEL

the degree to which a task is reportable or conscious. Tasks that produce high attention-level demands are likely to interfere with each other when...

ATTITUDE

in social psychology, an enduring and general evaluation or cognitive schema relating to an object, person, group, issue, or concept. Strength and valence can...

AVERSIVE STIMULUS

refers to any stimulus or occurrence that evokes avoidance behavior or escape behavior in an individual. Also known as an aversive event. See also...

AUDITORY PERCEPTION

the ability to interpret and organize sensory information received through the auditory system.

AVOIDANCE

refers to the practice or an instance of keeping away from particular situations, activities, environments, individuals, things, or subjects of thought because of either...

AVOIDANCE GRADIENT

refers to the variation in strength of drive as a function of the organism's proximity to an aversive stimulus. For example, a rat's withdrawal...

ACTIVE TOUCH

touch perception of the features of an item through deliberate, willful direct contact (in particular with the hands) which is self-started.

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