the theoretical developments in psychology associated principally with the universities of Vienna and Graz in Austria around the end of the 19th century. Influenced by German psychologist and philosopher Franz Brentano (1838-1917) and Austrian philosopher Ernst Mach (1838-1916), the emphasis of this school was the mental processes that produced whole, organized perceptions. This focus continued with Gestalt psychology.

AUSTRIAN SCHOOL: "The Austrian school of psychologists focused on the whole person and developed the precursor to Gestalt psychology."