Institute for females established in Paris in 1656 as an psychiatric hospital for the infirm, elderly, and deranged individuals. In the past, it included close to 10,000 individuals along with room for 300 prisoners, and therapy was acknowledged to be inhumane. Converted in the course of the reign of Philippe Pinel ( 1745-1826 ), who eventually became its administrator in 1794 and launched numerous revolutionary reforms in the therapy of individuals with mental health issues. From the 1860s, the facility evolved into the treatment center for the psychopathological research of Jean-Martin Charcot ( 1825-1893 ), which included the application hypnosis; in 1885, one of Charcot's pupils was the youthful Sigmund Freud.
SALPETRIERE: "Salpetriere underwent many conversions."