Significant alternation in the theoretical structure of a subject of scientific research, as recognized by U.S. philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996). Analysis conducted within the structure of a conventional science, that is, one with a strong paradigm that defines the area of study and techniques of the scientific research, can, as time passes, produce anomalies which are inconsistent with anticipated outcomes. Whenever an ample amount of anomalies take place, an emergency phase could surface, which stimulates researchers and theorists to reevaluate the primary assumptions and techniques of the scientific research, and a total reformulation might take place. This substantially transforms both the routines and viewpoint of the researchers affiliated along with the characteristics and area of study of the scientific research, when a new conventional science may appear. See also: paradigm clash; paradigm shift.