was first proposed by U.S. psychologist Starke Rosecrans Hathaway (1903 - 1984) and U.S. psychiatrist John Charnley McKinley (1891 - 1950) at the University of Minnesota which involves participants having to read aloud words that appear in the mirror and therefore a mirror image (reversed) of the original word.

MIRROR READING: "Mirror reading has been used in experimental conditions where participants must read from a string of words using a mirror resulting in the words forming backwards."