An assessment employed to research the function of optical and gravitational signals in estimating the visual vertical. This is the most favored way to measure field dependence and independence. The evaluation includes a mobile rod inside a framework; the individual has to orient the rod to an actual vertical placement within the frame as the frame position changes. Degrees by which the rod is off 90 (true vertical) is the measure employed in scoring the test. Higher scores indicate that the individual is more field dependent; conversely, lower scores indicate that the individual is less field dependent.
ROD-AND-FRAME TEST (RFT): "The rod-and-frame test was developed in 1948 by U.S. psychologists Herman A. Witkin (1916-1979) and Solomon Asch."