a technique for evaluating peoples' readiness to assist other belonging to a particular social group or category. Researchers call involved parties on a phone and stress their identity as members of a specific social or ethnic group. They claim that they are experiencing a minor emergency like a flat tire, and have accidentally dialed the wrong number from a payphone, and have now utilized the last of their change. The researchers then ask the involved parties to call an automobile repair shop for them. Voluntary motivation to help is implied if the involved party makes the call.