a direct attitude measure which consists of generating a large group of statements modeled to show ranging degrees of negativity or positivity toward an outlook item. A set of judges are then asked to score how positive or negative each statement is, generally on a 9- or 11-point rating scale. The central propensity and dispersion of the judges' scores for each statement are calculated, and a group of statements with low dispersions is chosen. This set consists of two statements showing each of the scale points on the scale and comprises the final outlook scale. Whenever the scale is delivered, respondents are directed to indicate which statements they agree with, and their outlook score is the median of the scale values for these statements.